Tips to Start Commercial Goat Rearing Guide in India: In India, Goat farming is a very profitable business with minimum inputs. You can do Goat Farming in small to large scale. Here is a complete guide to set up a goat farming project. Goat farming in India is a well-established, antiquated form of farming especially in places where dryland farming system is practiced. Generally, farmers practice the Goat Farming Business who have a very small area of land for farming. Since the risk, the initial investments etc. are much lower than other forms of farming, sometimes landless laborers also undertake goat farming. Hence, goats are famous with the name “poor man’s cow” since it has promises of good return that can serve as an investment source.
Guide to Start Goat Rearing Business for Beginners in India Posted on seekinfo
Benefits of Goat Farming Business
There are many benefits that you can enjoy. Here are some of the benefits that you can check in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide.
- Goat meat is consumed by almost all sections of the society and there is no religious taboo over it. In addition, goat meat has lower cholesterol content and is lean meat.
- The initial investment required for a goat farm is much low that dairy farming.
- Any one can start a farm with a herd of 6-10 goats. A farm can be started with just one goat and gradually increased to a herd or develop into large commercial units.
- Since goats can tolerate bitter taste to a greater extent than other animals, they consume almost every type of plants that are not eaten by other animals.
- They can live in almost all types of climatic conditions since they are careful eaters.
- Goat milk is medically recommended for senior citizens and infants as it contains small fat globules that are easily digestible.
- Goat droppings are rich in nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Hence it can be used as excellent organic manure. The market for organic farming is high for goat manure.
- Goats start milking by the age of 16-17 months generally.
- Goats are productive breeders and give birth to three kids within two years and producing twins is a usual feature.
- Considering all the above benefits, it can be said that goats ensure good economic returns in a short period of time.
Setting up a Goat Farm in India
You have to keep in mind about the following points while beginning a goat farm. All the points in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide are helpful to you. Hence do not miss them. We have given a comprehensive list of things to do to start a goat farming business.
Selecting the Goats for Goat Farming
Goats must be healthy and lively. However, it is better to check with the local government about regulations before procuring. It is advisable to get two goats while procuring. Goats are social animals and need company. If kept in solitary confinement, they would try to escape. Hence it is must to keep at least two goats in enclosures.
Male to Female Ratio in Goat Farming
Goats are of 3 different types:
- Females or does
- Uncastrated males or bucks
- Castrated males or wethers
It is not necessary that the does must be impregnated by bucks for milk production. One buck to every 30 does is a healthy ratio for goat farms ideally.
Age of Goats in Goat Farming
Younger goats of eight weeks old are cheaper and friendlier to procure than older goats. However, these younger ones need care for about a year or two. Following this period these goats can be bred, sold as meat or used for milk production.
Choosing the Right Breed for Goat Farming
The next thing in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide is breed. Goats from races such as Malabari, Black Bengal, Jamunapuri, Osmanabadi and many more. give very rich milk and good meat. Hence they are reared for both meat and milk purposes. Breeds like Angora or Cashmere are raised for their hair since it is very popular for its use as a fabric.
Management Practices for Goat Farming
As you have learned what are the primary things, that you have to do. Now we are going to let you know about the management practices in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide. Hence have a glance at the below section of this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide.
Housing Facilities and Management in Goat Farming:
The primary objective of a house is to protect the animal from sun, rain, and wind. The house must be built at an elevation so that it does not suffer from problems of waterlogging. Locally available materials like paddy straw, wood, bamboo, elephant grass, etc. are used for the construction of houses. No elaborate housing arrangements are required for small units. The sheds for goats must have a good amount of ventilation. The slope the shed must be arranged such that water can drain away easily and it should be easy to clean the place.
In the case of group housing a space of 1.8 sq.mt. A floor space of 2.4 sq per doe must be given. Mt. must be provided for the bucks. An area of 1.8 X 1.8 sq. mt. is sufficient for 10 kids. However, overstocking must be avoided as it results in suffocation and cramped up spaces. Since diseases spread very easily among goats, sick animals must be quarantined immediately.
Feeding Management in Goat Farming
Goats are meticulous eaters and they can tolerate more amount of bitterness than other animals. Hence, they can thrive on the waste, agricultural by-products, and other such feed. In addition, they are stronger and can withstand all types of weather conditions. Their upper lip is mobile and their tongues are adapted for grazing. Hence they can graze on bushes, extremely short grasses, shrubs, and trees. They must be provided with leguminous fodder in addition to grains like wheat, pulses, maize, etc.
They generally prefer fodder of leguminous crops than maize silage or straw. In addition, they need feed composed at least 14-15% protein along with high mineral composition like iodized salt, bone meal, zinc oxide, ferrous carbonate, high-grade limestone, copper sulfate, and vitamins. The growers are given 100 gm per day of concentrate mixture while the adult does and bucks are given concentrate ration of 200-250 grams per day. On an average, each goat consumes a liter of water and 5-7 kg of green fodder per day. Statistically speaking an acre of fodder can be fed to 35 goats.
Caring for Goat’s Kid in Goat Farming:
The newborn kid must be fed with colostrum immediately after birth and for up to 5 days thereon. This would help the goat develop better immunity. After the initial five days, the amount of doe’s milk given to the kid must be 1/10th of the kid’s body weight.
Pregnant Doe in Goat Farming:
The next thing in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide is to know about the pregnant doe. A concentrated mixture of 250-300 grams a day must be given to the pregnant does. The amount must be reduced gradually from a week before parturition and the amount of fodder must be increased. This facilitates easy delivery.
Breeding Management in Goat Farming:
Selecting the right doe and buck is the secret to successful breeding. Goat doe attains maturity between 6-10 months of age. However, this also depends on body weight, size, and breed. Goat bucks attain maturity after 12 months. It is ideal to have two kidding annually with a span of 8-9 months for optimal production. The months of March to May and September to November is the peak breeding season for goats. Generally every 17 to 21 days, the estrous cycle occurs. In a doe, the heat period lasts for 18-36 hours.
Usually, you can detect the onset of heat in a doe by using a teaser buck. The doe must meet the buck only after 10-15 hours of the onset of heat for increasing the conception rate. The gestation period lasts for 155 days. The females can breed for 5-7 years, while the males can breed for as long as 8-10 years.
Choosing the Breeding Stock in Goat Farming:
An ideal breeding stock is the one that is at the prime stage of production or is ready to breed. They must be in good health and have a good vigor. Ascertain the pedigrees at the time of purchase. Vaccinate the animals against diseases, especially infectious diseases after the purchase. To check for animal behavior, diseases and also to give time to the animals for settling down keep the stock under observation for 15 days. Cull the breeding stock after attaining 6 years of age and you can replace them with a new stock. Maintain the male and female ratio at an optimum level in the farm. Replace the male bucks every 2-3 years to avoid inbreeding. This helps to maintain the best performance production.
Kid Management in Goat Farming:
The next thing in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide is kid management. Immediately after the birth of the kid, the mucus from the nose and mouth of the newborn kid must be cleaned. Allow the Doe’s to lick them so as to develop a mother-kid bond and also for easy identification by the mother in future. Cut the naval cord from the body of the kid 2.5 cm away. Apply tincture iodine or other such antibiotics to prevent infection and naval illness. After delivery, clean the udders of the doe. Also, disinfect them with antiseptic lotion.
Give the kid colostrum immediately after birth and for the next 5 days. However, avoid overfeeding to the kids. Make sure that there are provisions for extra goats if more than 2 kids are born. You can bottle fed the kids with formula milk for as long as 2 months. During winter, to protect the kids from frost, provide them with straw, sawdust or gunny bags as bedding materials. During summer, to avoid heat stroke, give energy drinks like glucose to the kids.
Castration in Goat Farming:
One of the important aspects that you have to know in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide is Castration. Male kids are generally preferable for better meat quality. There is no requirement in the breeding flock. Hence people follow castration in the kids between the age of 1-2 months.
Health Care in Goat Farming:
Health Care is also an important thing to know in this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide. Clean, Wash the Goat sheds thoroughly and disinfect at least once a month. Regularly clean the water and food managers. Goats are prone to endoparasite infection. Hence follow deworming once every six months. Follow deworming in Does just before breeding while in kids for every month. Spray the animals with ectoparasitic drugs like acaricides frequently in order to avoid ticks, lice, mites, etc. Give Vaccinations against diseases like goat plague, pox, FMD, etc. periodically.
Zoonotic diseases like brucellosis, salmonellosis etc. must be prevented as they are infectious and spread easily. To keep infections in check, do not allow stray animals to enter the farm. Isolate the sick goats as soon as you notice the infection. Timely provide medication to them.
Goat Caring in a Nutshell
To conclude the Commercial Goat Farming in India, just read the following points and consider while raising goats and their kids on your farm:
- Choose breeds that are local to the geographical location. Also, they should suit best to the weather conditions of the place.
- Procure goats from centers which have legal certificates and authentic license.
- You should keep in mind that the stock should add near about 15-20% breeder every year.
- You should have that driving seat where you can remove the older animals and poorly performing animals by replacing them without any hassles.
- Follow a total of 150 goats as the headcount in a stock because keeping a headcount of more than 150 goats becomes difficult for management.
- During summer, allow the flocks to graze early in the morning and in late evenings.
- Make sure that the source of water is available near the grazing area so that they get enough water to drink.
- Provide the goat with fresh pastures during the period of pregnancy, growth, lactation and other such crucial stages.
- Provide the newborn kid with a sufficient amount of dry grass and straw for bedding purposes.
- Immediately after birth, cleaning of newborn’s nose and mouth properly. It is must to feed colostrum within the first half hour of birth.
- After the first five days, the gradually separate the kids from the mother. Allow suckling once every six hours which can continue for the next 7-10 days or so. You should also gradually reduce before totally weaning away.
- For their proper care and management, one must keep the animals of different age groups in the right flock.
- Goats are likely to develop foot rot during monsoon. Hence pass through a copper sulfate solution.
Conclusion on Commercial Goat Rearing Guide:
Once upon a time, there was a consideration that people should neglect goat farming. However, realizing the benefits of goat milk, meat, and other by-products, now people are considering it as a good opportunity and as an occupation. There are several low investment enterprises among which goat farming stands first in the list. Goat farming is especially a good business to start with for the jobless youth whose number is simply increasing each passing day. We hope that this Commercial Goat Rearing Guide is helpful to you.